Autumn apple orchard management technical points

Autumn is one of the most important periods for apple orchard management, including water management, nutrient management, fruit management, tree management, tree regulation, and integrated pest management. It fully reflects the comprehensive and systematic management of fruit trees. The majority of fruit farmers should seize this critical period, not only to do the final attack of this year's fruit harvest period, to ensure a good harvest this year, but also to lay a solid foundation for flower bud formation, robustness and improved nutrient storage in the coming year.


First, water management:


Water is one of the most important conditions for the survival of fruit trees. Without water, all life cannot be discussed. Suitable water is crucial for the formation of flower buds, the rapid expansion of fruit, the absorption and utilization of fertilizers, and the transportation and synthesis of nutrients. Important, and water is an important means of regulating tree potential. Therefore, water management is the most important aspect of fruit tree management. At the same time, because the ecological conditions of the orchard, the time of precipitation, and the amount of precipitation are difficult to control artificially, water management is also a difficult point in fruit tree management. We all know that most of the apple producing areas in China have the problem of uneven precipitation in the spring, autumn and autumn. How to make full use of the autumn precipitation is the spring utilization of fruit trees, and it is especially important to avoid excessive precipitation on the fruit trees. The focus of solving this problem is in the fall. Autumn orchard moisture management should pay attention to several aspects.


   1. Covering the orchard in the arid area, it is a good idea to save the precious rainwater in the autumn for the fruit trees to be used in the spring drought, so autumn is an excellent time for soil coverage.


We know that some rainwater is lost with surface runoff after rainfall. 50%~60% is lost by evaporation. Covering grass avoids the erosion of soil by heavy rain and reduces surface runoff. Improve soil penetration and the ability to store rainwater. After the grass is covered, the evaporation amount can be reduced by more than 60% , and the soil moisture is relatively increased by about 5% , so that "autumn rain can be used in spring, and less rain can be used". Especially in the hilly area, the annual evaporation and runoff can be reduced by 400-500 mm through the orchard covering the grass, so that the soil water content in the root layer of the fruit tree is stable at more than 15% . Covering does not prevent weed growth and reduce fruit loss. Common materials used for covering are crop straw and mulch. The specific method is to use 0.5 to 1 kg of nitrogen fertilizer or Dimita compound fertilizer before planting in the orchard without topdressing after rain and fine weather , and then mash the corn and wheat straw 0.5 meters away from the trunk. and covering decay, also cover directly) after spread evenly and lower rows Shupan orchard, grass covering Shupan place to cover the root distribution (the outer edge of the crown), a thickness of 15 to 20 cm, in the star grass Press some soil to prevent wind and fire. The mature orchard should be covered with grass, and the young orchard should be covered with grass (tree tray). Partially covered with grass, 2000 to 3000 kg of hay per acre or 4000 to 6000 kg of fresh grass , and the whole garden is covered with 5000 to 8000 kg. Do not turn the grass into the ground when applying the base fertilizer in autumn. When the fruit trees are topdressed, you can open the grass and apply more holes. After 3 to 4 years of continuous ploughing, the base fertilizer is applied and the next year is repeated.


The autumn mulch is catching the third growth peak of the root of the fruit tree. At this time, the most obvious effect is to delay the temperature drop, resist the drought and moisturize, prolong the growth period of the root system, and obviously increase the number of new roots of the fruit tree. It can improve the effect of base fertilizer in autumn, promote microbial activities, increase soil effective nutrients, and facilitate nutrient accumulation in the late fruit trees. After the fall of the film is generally done in late September to early winter Shi base fertilizer, watering or rain while film. The film is combined with the grooving to carry out the ridge, which can not only play the role of protecting the sputum, but also can play the role of drainage and flood prevention when the rain is too much in the autumn.


   2 , orchard grass


There are many benefits of orchard grass, not only can cover the sputum, but the annual grass can significantly improve the soil and improve soil fertility. For the soil climatic conditions in China, for the annual precipitation of 600 mm or more or the orchard with irrigation conditions, a dual management system for clearing or covering between rows of grasses can be implemented. The orchard mainly adopts the live grass method, which is usually planted in September . The technical requirements of the live broadcast method are: carry out fine-level soil preparation, and then water (or after rain), sowing when appropriate. Ditching or spreading can be used, ditching and ditching should be planted first; seeding should be planted first, then a layer of soil should be evenly spread on the seed. The weeds are removed in time after emergence, and this method is relatively labor-intensive. Herbicide treatment usually (optional rapid degradation in soil and broad spectrum of species, such as paraquat in moist soil 10--15 days or failure) before sowing, can be seeded.


   3 , drainage flood control   Too much rain in autumn may cause a large number of fruit trees to cause strips, resulting in poor nutrient accumulation of branches, low maturity, reduced resistance, and difficulty in flower bud formation. The orchard has accumulated too much water for a long period of time, resulting in poor soil ventilation. Not only root respiration and soil microbial activity are inhibited, but also salt accumulation is easily caused, causing root poisoning death. Therefore, when the soil water content of the orchard reaches the maximum water holding capacity in the field, it should be drained.


Second, nutrient management


Autumn is one of the most critical periods for nutrient supplementation of fruit trees. It is mainly divided into two aspects. One is the base fertilizer in autumn, and the other is root dressing. The autumn application base fertilizer has the following advantages: First, the temperature is high at this time, the soil temperature is suitable, the water is sufficient, and it is easy to be absorbed and utilized by the root system, which is beneficial to improving fertilizer efficiency. Second, it is conducive to improving the nutrient storage level of the tree and coordinating the relationship between vegetative growth and reproductive growth. The available nutrients in the fertilizer are easily absorbed by the roots at the third growth peak, which enhances the function of autumn leaves and accumulates nutrients, which makes the buds full and full, and the flower buds develop well in the late stage, laying a foundation for flowering and sitting apples in the coming year; The delayed nutrient is decomposed in a long period of time, and the spring is absorbed and balanced, improving the quality of the medium and short branches, and prompting the spring shoots to stop in time to create conditions for flower bud differentiation. Third, it is beneficial to the root system to rejuvenate and strengthen the nutrient absorption and synthesis functions. The early autumn roots are at the peak of the last growth period, and the injured roots are easy to heal and recover, which is conducive to the promotion of new roots, and most of them are effective absorption roots. The fourth is to increase the soil temperature, maintain moisture, and enhance the wintering ability of the tree. The fifth is to avoid long shoots, causing the branches to “drain” or the saplings to “dry”.


It is generally believed that the apple orchard with an application rate of Organic Fertilizer ( farm fertilizer ) of more than 1000 kg per mu should reach “ 1.5 kg of fertilizer per kg of apple ”; the high-yield garden with an output of 2000-3000 kg per mu should reach “ 1 kg of apple and 2 kg of fertilizer”. Standard, with a small amount of quick-acting fertilizer. Orchard with insufficient organic fertilizer can be applied to Mumei soil biological fertilizer 100-150 kg per mu Jiadi Mijia compound fertilizer 100-150 kg per mu Jiawo Tianjia special fertilizer 25-30 kg per mu or Pu Dejin Humic Acid potassium fertilizer 10-15 kg. Or large ternary compound fertilizer 240 kg per mu plus Pu Dejin humic acid potassium fertilizer 10-15 kg.


Top dressing: The autumn is the fruit ripening period. Due to the abnormal climate this year, some early-ripening apples have difficulties in coloring, anti-green after peeling off the bag, and rough fruit surface. In order to improve fruit quality, increase coloration, increase sugar content, and purify the surface. To reduce the deficiency of water heart disease, bitter pox disease, etc. In this period, we should grasp the key period of fruit tree management and carry out root fertilizer supplementation. In this period, potassium and calcium fertilizers are the main factors. Can be sprayed and dried. When the leaf is sprayed, it can be selected from Pu Dejin humic acid potassium fertilizer 800-1000 times weighted calcium 2000-2500 times or Gayles 400-600 times or Sid Coup 8000-10000 times. It is worth noting that apple fruit is very sensitive to calcium, and the mobility of calcium is poor. When calcium is added, it should be sprayed to the fruit surface. At the same time, strictly in accordance with the use of multiples, do not increase the concentration without authorization. When applying dry, you can use Pu Dejin 15-30 times, while supplementing potassium fertilizer, it can also effectively prevent rot disease.


Spraying foliar fertilizer before harvesting fruit can greatly improve the storage nutrition of fruit trees. Spraying fruit amino acids or urea before the leaves is very important for increasing tree nutrition. Practice has proved that the deciduous fruit postharvest left half about 600 times spraying Friends fruit acid or 1% solution of urea, can extend the life of the blade, the blade enhanced functionality, improved photosynthesis rate 0.5 --1 time, it can improve the Root Nutritional status, promote root development, enhance absorption capacity and overall metabolic process of fruit trees. The most important thing is to promote the return of nitrogen in the leaves to the tree and roots, thereby increasing the content of organic nitrogen in the trees.      Third, fruit management


Autumn is in the sprint stage of fruit management. The high-quality fruit management can not only greatly improve the fruit yield, but also greatly improve the quality of the fruit, purify the surface, increase the sugar content and color, and thus use less. The investment has achieved high benefits and achieved the effect of four or two.


   1, timely pick bags: fruit in general be grown bag 90 days, 2 times to properly pick bags, fast fruit coloring high altitudes where the removable outer bag 15-20 days before harvest fruit; lower elevations, Where the fruit is colored slowly , the outer bag can be taken 20-25 days before the fruit is harvested normally . First remove the bag for 3-5 days, then remove the inner bag. It is better to pick a bag on a cloudy or cloudy day. If you pick a bag on a sunny day, it should be done every day from 9:00-11:00 am and 3:00-6:00 pm .


The symptoms of various spots, spots, rust, lines and even cleft palate caused by factors such as drug stimulation, nutritional imbalance, water imbalance, sunburn, pests and diseases are affecting the appearance quality of apples and the rate of fruit bagging. The primary issue. Black spot disease: black spots appear on the fruit stalks and stems, do not enlarge, do not rot, sometimes green halo around the black spots, the surface often has a thin layer of cream pectin. Rust spot disease: brown streaks or contiguous rust spots on the fruit stalks and stems, and the fruit spots on the fruit surface are magnified. Red dot disease: Within one week after the apple is removed from the bag, a reddish brown spot appears on the sunny side, and the red dot does not expand, does not sag, and does not rot. Water-stained disease: In the late stage of apple growth, stems, sputum or even fruit surfaces produce brown braided water ripples centered on the stalk, which is called splitting. Apple spotted rust disease is a series of symptoms caused by garden, soil, tree, medicine, bagging, nutrition, water, meteorology, and certain diseases and insect pests, alone or in combination with apple fruit. Prevention and treatment must be the right medicine, comprehensive prevention and treatment. Recent results indicate that the day after the solution bags apple, green spraying a high + 800-fold Gailis 600--800 mixture fold, for bagging fruit surface micro-fissure, is excellent in black and red spots Preventive effects.


   2 , picking leaves and turning fruits: picking leaves after picking up the bags. It is advisable to remove the shading leaves within 5-10 cm around the fruit in a timely manner . It is advisable to divide the leaves by 2-3 batches to not exceed 30% of the total leaf volume . The petiole should be preserved when picking leaves. Keep functional blades as much as possible. 5-7 days after the fruit bag is released, it is necessary to combine the leaves to carry out the fruit coloring work. The specific method, the hand care fruit will gently turn the erotic sun face to the negative side, and the fruit should be carried out in the same direction. Until the whole fruit surface is evenly colored, it can be divided into 2-3 batches. The fruit can be easily selected in cloudy or evening, or cloudy days to avoid daily burns.


   3. Laying reflective film: The reflective film placed in the orchard is reflected and radiated by the reflective film to improve the lighting conditions of the whole orchard, especially the inner and lower skirts of the canopy, so that the fruits of these parts, especially the fruits, are not easy to be colored. The part is fully colored, increasing the number of whole red fruits, thereby achieving the purpose of improving the appearance quality of the apple. Reflective film is a very mature technology, which is widely used in many countries such as Japan, Europe, New Zealand, etc., and is used in many high-grade orchards in China. Laying the reflective film not only promotes fruit coloration, but also enhances photosynthesis of fruit trees, thereby increasing yield. In addition, the reflective film can be used repeatedly to reduce the cost of use. Bagging orchards can generally be carried out 3 to 5 days after bag removal . Orchards without bagging should be carried out 1 month before harvesting .


Fourth, tree management and tree potential adjustment


With the transformation of fruit tree management technology, especially the management technology that adapts to the characteristics of Fuji apple, the apple tree is mainly pruned and sparsely branched, and rarely shorted and retracted. This new management technology determines that the main shaping time of the apple tree is in the fall. The following aspects of the tree management in autumn mainly include the following work.


   1. Pulling branches: Autumn is the golden time for fruit trees to pull branches. The reason is that autumn is the period of nutrient reflow. After opening the angle in time, nutrients are easily accumulated in the branches, making the buds fuller and promoting early flowering; Compared with the branches, the strong branches will not sprout on the back; the autumn branches are soft and easy to open, and after the autumn branches, the flowers are ready for the next year. If the spring branches, then the ring is cut. The branches are easy to break.


For saplings, when the length of the branches is long enough, the branches are opened in the autumn, the vegetative growth is moderated, and the branches are further lengthened. It is very important for cultivating suitable skeleton branches, for the main shape, high spindle shape, etc. The fruit trees of the grade structure, after the lateral branches grow to a certain extent, the branches are made into flowers as soon as possible by pulling branches and other measures. For the fruit trees of 4-5 grade structures such as free spindle-shaped and evacuated layered , the main branches are opened to a certain extent. It is beneficial to control the excessive length of the main branch and the rapid formation of the side branches, resulting in rapid flowering of the branch group.


For mature orchards, through the autumn branches, the inter-row passages can be opened, the subordination between the branches can be straightened out, and the spatial distribution of the branches can be rationalized to cultivate a reasonable tree shape.


   2 , thinning: refers to the trimming of 1- year-old branches or perennial branches from the base. Branching can improve the light condition in the canopy and the nutritional status of nearby branches. After sparse branching, it has an inhibitory effect on the upper side (front side) of the wound, and promotes the branches below (the rear) of the wound. As far as the whole plant is concerned, if there are more branches in the upper part, the apical dominance will shift to the lower branches, thereby enhancing the growth potential of the lower branches; on the contrary, if the lower branches are more, the growth potential of the upper branches will be enhanced. At the same time, because the branching reduces the amount of branches and leaves, it helps to ease the thickening of the mother branches, and there are many applications in the adjustment of the branch group. For the young tree, the branching in the autumn is beneficial to improve the light of the tree, alleviate the vegetative growth of the tree and promote the flowering as soon as possible. At the same time, due to the large number of leaves growing in the growing season, it is possible to clearly see the density of the fruit trees and facilitate the thinning.


   3 , take the branch: the object is the year of birth. It is caused by artificial internal injury, slowing the growth of the front end and enhancing the bud quality of the back. The biggest advantage is that the young shoots open at an early angle. In the future, neither the rope pull nor the early transformation of the shoots can be achieved.


There are many advantages to taking branches. One is to make the branches stop in time; the other is to change the angle to ease the growth; the third is to increase the number of short and medium branches. The time to take the branch is best when the hot branches are soft at noon during the growing season. The objects that took the branches were mainly the 50- year-old branches and the prolonged 2- year-old branches that failed to stop in time . The degree of branching is to hear a slight break in the xylem and the cortex is still good.


   4 , the demise of the branch: the amount should be determined according to the space, according to the branch potential. Declining or partially dying, annual or perennial pinching, solving the ventilation and light transmission of the tree, enhancing the coloration of the fruit, reducing the unnecessary consumption of the aboveground part of the fruit tree, recombining the forces between the ground and the ground, branches and branches, thereby balancing the tree potential, Stabilize the tree, strengthen the tree, and increase accumulation. When the pinned branches become weak or vain, they must die out in due course. For some flower buds with poor quality, the unsatisfied pinned branches should die at the base and the branches should not be injured too much, so as not to further weaken the branches. When the twig growth is particularly prosperous, it can be diverted according to the situation. The pinch can be used as the management of the year. It is made by turning branches and softening. Take the heart and go to the leaves and other means to turn it into a result branch. When the branch or the pinned branch affects the light, one of them should be properly killed.


V. Pest Control


   1. Continue to strictly prevent and control rot disease. The orchard that was dried with Pu Dejin in the early stage can be re-coated according to the actual situation. It can also supplement organic potassium fertilizer while preventing rot disease. For the orchard that has not been dried in the early stage, after the apple is harvested, carefully inspect the orchard, scrape the old skin, and cure the small oil spots, large surface ulcers, or sickness, and cure them in time. Pu Dejin 15-30 times, once again after 7-10 days, even 2-3 times.


   2 , in the first ten days of September, timely stalks of the trunk, or use waste cloth, insects to bandage the trunk, trapping the small winter leaf moth, leafhopper and other hidden winter insects.


   3 , the occurrence of powdery mildew, black spot disease, spotted leaf disease and round rotten fruit orchard can be removed according to the situation, to prevent the spread of disease spread, if necessary, spray Jin Lux 5000 ~ 6000 times, or Jian Li Tong 3000 times + Soft water through 4000 times mixture to control the occurrence of diseases. The apple orchard of the apple is broken, the insect tip is removed, and the sprayed Anmin Le 1000 times + precious 15000 times + soft water pass 4000 times mixed liquid is used for prevention. In the middle and late October, the cutting saw, the tree skin and the ring stripping were carefully scraped off, and the roots were treated with An Min Le or good labor to eliminate the wintering pests.


   4 , bagging orchard, in addition to the bag should be sprayed with a high-quality fungicide and calcium fertilizer, such as high-quality 600 ~ 800 times, or nano Xin (Lizhi) 1000 ~ 1200 times, plus Gabriel 400 ~ 500 times, or Heavy calcium 2000 ~ 2500 times mixture. The spraying of fertilizers not only can effectively prevent the occurrence of black and red spots on the fruit surface, but also has obvious effects of increasing production and income.


   5. When mastering the night and freezing, the orchard will be irrigated once in winter to eliminate the wintering pests in the soil surface.


Source: China Agricultural Promotion Network



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