Which plastics are recycled in used cars?

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With the constant focus on environmental protection, the automotive industry is also moving towards “lightweight” development. In addition to the wide application of engineering plastics in the manufacture of various interior trim parts, engineering plastics can now be used to replace some metal materials to make certain structural parts, functional parts and exterior trim parts. This not only meets the special performance requirements of certain automotive parts, but also meets the requirements of lightweight vehicles.

The production and per capita share of automobiles have increased substantially, and the frequency of scrapping and updating has naturally increased. In recent years, the recycling of used automotive plastics has attracted great attention from countries around the world.

In February 2006, the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Science and Technology and the State Environmental Protection Administration jointly promulgated the "Automotive Product Recycling Technology Policy" to guide and promote the design, manufacture, scrapping, recycling and reuse of China's automotive products.

As an environmentally friendly material, plastic is widely used in the automotive industry due to its strong plasticity, light weight and high recycling efficiency. Plastics are increasingly used for interiors, exteriors, and functional structural parts.

This article lists several representative engineering plastics used in automobiles, and makes a simple analysis of the pulverization and recycling in production.

1, bumper / dashboard

Such components are structurally shaped and large in size, and are generally selected as augmented engineering plastics such as abs, ppo, pp, pvc. These components will increase the strength of the material by adding glass fibers. Therefore, the wear resistance of the pulverizer tool and the inner wall of the pulverizing chamber is relatively high during pulverization and recovery.

In addition, the size of these components is large, and in order to improve efficiency during pulverization, most of them currently use automatic feeding-crushing--conveying--automatic separation of dust--bagging one-stop production line equipment, only need to invest 1 person It can complete the work done by 3-5 people in the traditional operation mode and improve the efficiency by 30-50%.

2, steering wheel / car handle / door trim panel / door and window seals / fender

Most of these components use pu (foaming), pvc artificial leather, tpv, plastic thermal elastomer, epdm rubber, etc. These materials have the characteristics of elasticity, strong deformation ability and good hand feeling.

In the pulverization and recycling, these materials present difficult problems such as soft rubber being difficult to cut, hot-sticking, agglomeration, and unloading. An elastomer-specific shredder must be used.

Different from the ordinary pulverizer, this pulverizer is designed for elastomer and rubber. It has the characteristics of soft rubber in the tool material, cutting angle, rotation speed and tool shaft assembly method. The material can be quickly cut into granules and matched. Use a special screen to make the cutting smoother.

For temperature-sensitive special elastomers and rubber (such as low temperature tpu, high purity pp, hot melt adhesive, etc.), low temperature environment pulverization can be added to reduce the physical property changes caused by temperature rise.

3, interior / ceiling

Such components are generally made of plastic fiber glue and plastic wool material. The fiber material is basically made of plastic materials, so it can be crushed and crushed for further recycling.

What should you pay attention to when recycling plastic fibers? Under the high-speed rotation of the cutter shaft, the plastic is easily crushed; and the fiber material can only be crushed by shearing. Therefore, the pulverization of such materials is similar to the pulverization and recovery of fiber materials. Unlike ordinary hard plastics, it requires relatively high material requirements for pulverizing knives: ordinary hard plastics are generally brittle because of their high hardness. Tool material, and choice of cutting angle.

4, car lights / car cover

These components are mainly considered for transparency and reflective properties, so the materials used are transparent pc, pmma and so on. When crushing and recycling such materials, it is necessary to avoid contamination of the raw materials by the crusher body, and also to separate the dust generated in the crushing. If the powder is infiltrated into the transparent pellets, it is likely to cause yellowing of the product or black spots during molding. Ordinary shredders can be used, but dust removal is required.

This type of material can be achieved by pulverizing with a conventional pulverizer, but it is preferable to add a dust removing device at the rear end of the pulverization. It is possible to remove more than 90% of the dust at the same time as the bag is pulverized, so that the performance and molding quality of the pulverized material are closer to the raw material when it is reshaped.

5, car control line

Although the amount of automotive control lines used in automobiles is not as large as rubber and plastics, its recycling value cannot be underestimated. Traditional recycling methods: high pollution and low utilization. The main components of the control line are the pvc skin and the copper core. Recycling is only valuable if you separate the two materials. However, because these control lines are uneven in thickness and disordered, the traditional dialing machine does not work. The old recycling method is to incinerate the outer layer of pvc to obtain the internal copper wire. This method causes pollution to the environment on the one hand, and wastes pvc plastic on the other hand.

At present, the cost-effective and low-pollution method is to use a copper-plastic separator to pulverize these messy control lines into rice grains, and then use the different proportions of pvc particles and copper particles to obtain clean pvc particles and copper particles. The separation cleanliness of the two materials can reach more than 99%. Can be directly reused separately, the entire process uses physical methods, does not change the performance of the material, and will not cause secondary pollution.

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